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Samstag, 27. Juni 2020


What contribution do "small power plants" in private residential construction make to the desired energy- and heat-transition?


On the weekend I had another nice conversation with someone who was interested in installing a solar system on his roof. A conversation which animated me to this article.
In the course of the conversation, a question was asked again and again: "What is the point of my small system, if we strive for a global energy- and heat- transition?"
Well, the answer should be simple. Any system that ensures that we do not need a combustion process to generate heat or electricity is an asset.
To put it in rough figures, let's say 1 million roofs are equipped with a 3 kWp PV system and a 5 m² solar thermal system.
With PV this would be about 3 million KWp or 3 GWp of power that would be installed, which corresponds to an annual output of about 3 TWh of electricity that would be generated.
Yes, I estimated 1000 kWh/KWp. In the south it will be a little more, in the north less. It is a milkmaid's bill, no question, but not far from reality.
And if you now add to this the fact that a solar thermal system in summer can help to avoid burning oil or gas to generate hot water, I would say that this, taken as a whole, is no small contribution to the energy- and heat-transition.
But I have now focused only on solar. If we spin this idea further, then we come to heat pumps that can convert electricity into heat many times over. Depending on the type of system, it is possible to turn 1kWh electric power in up to 4 kWh of heat. How nice if most of the electricity or additional heat would now also come from the roof. ?!
Unfortunately, in such conversations, you come across a factor that is at the forefront of such considerations. "What does such a system cost me and when will my investment pay off?" A perfectly understandable question. But even here, just pull out the calculator and think about what e.g. the electricity from the grid costs and what e.g. the electricity generated by my PV system costs. Especially with regard to the low-interest loans that are currently granted for the construction of such a system.
And if you now add the subsidy programs for the use of "renewables" in general, the answer should not be difficult.
Here is an additional example from the past: "What, 10,000 EUR for a solar thermal plant, that's too expensive for me..." A few months later it sounded like this: " What 12,000 for a solar thermal plant with a subsidy of 2,000 EUR, ... I am interested".  Well, everybody can think about that on his own...
Another sentence that got stuck in my memory: "The energy-transition is more likely to be achieved with large solar and wind parks. Well, of course, a large plant concentrated on one area is able to generate more power than a plant on a private roof. BUT, on the one hand, such plants are more reserved for investors who want to generate a quick profit.
On the other hand, we have to ask ourselves to what extent a large plant, for which forests are cleared, agricultural areas are sealed, or natural areas destroyed, can still be called "sustainable".
It is not about demonizing these plants, whether wind or solar parks, but about not losing sight of the thoughts "environmentally friendly, nature conserving, real sustainable etc.", just because one concentrates on the fast profit.
Especially in regard to the fact, that there are already applications in the solar sector available that allow the occupied area to be used in a multiple way. Keyword "Agro-PV", here an agricultural area is used to generate electricity, but is still available for the cultivation of agricultural products. In combination with e.g. semi-transparent modules in the field of PV, even the cultivation of sun-sensitive agricultural products is possible.
In addition, even a reduction in water consumption can be achieved through partial shading.

Picture: Solidenergie GmbH - https://www.solidenergie.com/

We have to start looking a little bit more beyond the horizon. On the one hand, with regard to the effect of "many small systems from the field of renewables" in private or small commercial applications and, on the other hand, with a view towards "real sustainability" instead of "quick profitability", at least if we want to implement a truly environmentally friendly energy and heat turnaround in a globally sensible way. And this NOW!
Just a simple thought.

06.2020

Welchen Beitrag leisten „Kleinanlagen“ im privaten Wohnbau zur angestrebten Energie- und Wärmewende..

Ich hatte am Wochenende wieder ein nettes Gespräch mit Jemanden der Interesse gezeigt hatte auf seinem Dach eine Solaranlage zu installieren. Ein Gespräch, welches mich zu diesem Artikel animiert hat.        
Im Zuge des Gespräches wurde eine sich immer wieder wiederholende Frage in den Raum gestellt: „Was bringt denn meine kleine Anlage eigentlich, wenn wir eine globale Energie- und Wärmewende anstreben..?“
Nun, die Antwort sollte einfach sein. Jede Anlage die dafür Sorge trägt, dass wir keinen Verbrennungsvorgang benötigen um Wärme oder Strom zu generieren, ist ein Gewinn. Um das mal in Zahlen auszudrücken, sagen wir mal 1 Millionen Dächer werden mit einer 3 kWp-PV-Anlage und einer 5 m² Solarthermie-Anlage bestückt.
Bei PV wären das ca. 3 Millionen KWp bzw.3 GWp Leistung die installiert werden würden, das entspricht einer jährlichen Leistung von grob ca. 3 TWh an Strom die generiert werden würde. Ja, ich habe mal 1000 kWh/KWp angesetzt. Im Süden wird es ein wenig mehr sein, im Norden weniger. Es ist eine Milchmädchenrechnung, keine Frage, aber nicht weit von der Realität entfernt. Und wenn man jetzt noch dazurechnet, dass eine solarthermische Anlage im Sommer dazu beitragen kann auf die Verbrennung von Öl oder Gas zu verzichten um Warmwasser zu generieren, dann würde ich sagen, dass dies, in der Gesamtheit betrachtet, kein kleiner Beitrag zur Energie- und Wärmewende darstellt.
Dabei habe ich mich jetzt mal nur auf Solar fokussiert. Spinnt man diesen Gedanken weiter, dann kommen wir zu Wärmepumpen, die den Strom vervielfacht in Wärme umwandeln können. Je nach Anlagentyp kommt da auch mal auf 4 kWh Wärme aus 1 kWh eingesetztem Strom. Wie schön wenn der Strom oder zusätzliche Wärme jetzt auch noch vom Dach käme.. ?!   J
Leider kommt man bei solchen Gesprächen auf einen Faktor, der bei solchen Überlegungen im Vordergrund steht. „Was kostet mich eine solche Anlage und wann spielt sich meine Investition wieder ein?“ Eine durchaus nachvollziehbare Frage. Aber auch hier einfach mal den Taschenrechner zücken und überlegen, was z.B. der Strom aus dem Netz kostet, und was z.B. die über meine PV-Anlage generierte Strom kostet. Insbesondere im Hinblick auf die zinsgünstigen Darlehen die für die Erstellung einer solchen Anlage aktuell gewährt werden.       
Und wenn man jetzt noch die Fördermaßnahmen für den Einsatz von „Erneuerbaren“ allgemein dazu nimmt, sollte die Antwort nicht schwer fallen.
Hierzu noch ein Beispiel aus der Vergangenheit: „Was, 10.000 EUR für eine Solarthermische Anlage, das ist mir zu teuer..“ Ein paar Monate später hörte sich das dann so an: „ Was 12.000 für eine solarthermische Anlage mit einem Zuschuss von 2.000 EUR,.. ich bin interessiert“..  Nun, dazu kann sich jeder seine eigenen Gedanken machen. 

Ein weiterer Satz der im Gedächtnis haften geblieben ist: „Die Energiewende wird doch eher mit großen Solar- und Windparks erreicht..“ Nun, natürlich ist eine große Anlage auf eine Fläche konzentriert in der Lage mehr Leistung zu generieren, als eine Anlage auf einem privaten Dach. ABER, zum einen sind solche Anlagen doch eher den Investoren vorbehalten die einen schnellen Profit generieren wollen. Zudem muss man sich die Frage stellen, inwieweit eine Großanlage für die Wälder gerodet, landwirtschaftliche Flächen versiegelt, oder Naturflächen vernichtet werden noch als „nachhaltig“ zu bezeichnen ist. Es geht hierbei nicht darum diese Anlagen, ob Wind- oder Solarparks zu verteufeln, sondern darum die Gedanken „Umweltverträglich, Naturschonend, Real nachhaltig etc.“ nicht aus den Augen zu verlieren, nur weil man sich auf den schnellen Profit konzentriert.
Zumal es im Bereich Solar bereits Anwendungen gibt, die es ermöglichen die belegte Fläche mehrfach zu nutzen. 
Stichwort „Agro-PV“, hier wird eine landwirtschaftliche Fläche genutzt um Strom zu generieren, steht der landwirtschaftlichen Nutzung jedoch nach wie vor zum Anbau von landwirtschaftlichen Produkten zur Verfügung. Bei einer Kombination mit z.B. semitransparenten Modulen im Bereich PV ist sogar der Anbau von sonnenempfindlichen landwirtschaftlichen Produkten möglich. Zusätzlich lässt sich  durch die Teil-Verschattung sogar eine Reduzierung des Wasserverbrauches erzielen.

Bild: Solidenergie GmbH - https://www.solidenergie.com/
Wir müssen anfangen ein wenig mehr über den Tellerrand hinauszuschauen. Zum einen im Hinblick auf die Wirkung „vieler kleiner Systeme aus dem Bereich der Erneuerbaren“ in der Anwendung im privaten oder kleingewerblichen Bereich und zum Anderen mit einem Blick in Richtung „real nachhaltig“ statt „schnell profitabel“, zumindest wenn wir eine wirklich Umweltverträgliche Energie- und Wärmewende global sinnvoll umsetzen wollen. Und das JETZT!
Nur ein Gedanke.

06.2020

Montag, 20. Mai 2019

INTERSOLAR 2019 - The world's leading trade fair for the solar industry


INTERSOLAR 2019 - The world's leading trade fair for the solar industry

Every year the Who's Who, the elite of the solar industry, meets at Europe's largest solar trade fair INTERSOLAR in Munich to offer their products and services to interested visitors. The world's leading trade fair for the solar industry took place in Munich from 15 to 17 May 2019.
What is immediately noticeable is the increased number of exhibitors this year. A total of 1354 exhibitors showed their portfolio on 100,000 m² in 10 halls. In comparison, the number of exhibitors in 2018 was still just under 1200. The number of visitors this year is estimated at an estimated 50,000 trade visitors from 162 nations. This is certainly due to the continuing solar boom, which in 2018 saw an increase in PV capacity of almost 100 GW and is forecasted to reach almost 120 GW in 2019. The figures for 2019 fluctuate between 110 and 150 GW, depending on the information source. This expected growth, compared to the already successful previous year, is accompanied by a correspondingly significant demand for an increase in production capacities. 







In addition, a look at the countries of origin of the exhibitors, at INTERSOLAR, reveals that the abolition of protective tariffs in the EU has not failed to have an effect. After all, it was obvious that the majority of exhibitors come from Asia.
In addition to quality and reliability, this growth is driven by cost-efficient and innovative production technologies, designed to ensure that products are launched on the market that reliably meet the planned service life of the respective components. These quality requirements are flanked by corresponding guarantees.
As every year, the products of the solar industry were thematically divided in the respective halls. In Halls A1-3, for example, everything to do with PV was to be found. From PV-cell and -module manufacturers (A1) to PV-system providers, PV-wholesalers and PV-services, EPC to IPC, to PV mounting and tracking systems. (A2/A3). Halls B2/B3 provided information on PV inverters, monitoring and control technology, smart renewable energy, off-grid power and solar thermal energy.
Hall B1 and part of Hall C1 were reserved for the parallel event ees Europe. Here stationary battery and energy storage systems, as well as battery production technologies and battery materials and components were presented.
This year's Power2Drive Europe, on the topics of charging infrastructure and electro-mobility, took place in Hall C3.
The third event, EM-Power, provided valuable information on the topics of decentralized self-sufficiency, energy management and building automation, energy services and contracting models in Hall C4.
What attracted attention was the meagre number of exhibitors in the solar thermal sector. It was only occasionally and with difficulty that solar thermal collectors could be discovered at the trade fair. An obvious indication that the focus is on the more profitable PV-industry and the foreseen growing PV-market. It's a shame when we do realize that solar thermal energy in the areas of providing hot water, solar thermal district heating, solar thermal industrial heating and the special applications like solar assisted cooling and solar assisted desalination plants, can certainly be expected to grow strongly in the coming years. Admittedly, a forecast that is repeated every year, but has not really been confirmed yet and has not yet picked up speed.

In my view, this year's INTERSOLAR solar trade fair focused on the following topics. In each case, this was flanked by corresponding lectures and presentations at the accompanying conferences.
In view of the expected continuing PV-boom on PV production technologies. The continued steady growth inevitably leads to an upswing in PV production. Inevitably combined with high quality standards, but also coupled with the requirement to significantly reduce component costs. A Vabanque game, which inevitably brings innovations and efficient solutions in the field of production technologies with it. This is not only about pure PV module production, but also manufacturing technologies and production solutions in the areas of PV-ingots- and -wafer production, systems for manufacturing such as PV-cells and thin-film technologies. To this fact was owed with this year's fair to this topic its own hall (C1) dedicated, flanked by an extensive master program.
Further attention was paid to the growing challenges of inverters. For a long time now, these inverters have not only been performing the function of converting DC to AC current, but have also had to master other challenges. Applications in the field of Power2Heat, SmartHome Technology, self-sufficient power supply units, hybrid solutions, are all possible.
The aforementioned topic packages are supplemented by a future orientation towards hybrid power plants. These include, among other things, systems in which PV paired with wind power are combined with corresponding storage technologies to form a combined package unit. Corresponding projects have already been announced worldwide for PV-wind-hybrid-power-plants. Massive growth is expected.
The theme packages will be rounded off with a growth market that is currently on everyone's lips - Africa. Africa is the market of the future par excellence. An extremely rising energy demand, rising conventionally provided electricity prices and ideal solar irradiation values are contrasted by falling costs for PV systems. This is an ideal constellation for accelerating the energy transition in Africa as well. Apart from that, there is still a huge demand for self-sufficient energy supply units that can also supply remote areas that are not connected to a grid, with energy. Unfortunately, this focus on this continent also has the bland aftertaste that profit vultures have found a new field of activity. We must therefore be careful that Africa is not misused as a sales market for purely profit-oriented investors. What is needed are fully comprehensive projects that integrate the local population into the process in order to create real perspectives, with the help of accompanying training and education measures, in addition to the actual creation of solar power plants. Measures that turn a solar park into a long-term sustainable project.
As every year, the INTERSOLAR Award 2019 was also presented this year. For the 12th time now, this prize is awarded to the best in the industry for their achievements. This year's recipients of the coveted award were Huawei Technologie Co. Ltd. Zhejiang Jinko Solar Co. Ltd. and Raycatch Ltd.
In addition to other smaller awards from the INTERSOLAR solar trade fair, the Baden-Baden television journalist Franz Alt was awarded the "European Energy Hero 2019" prize. [quote Sonnenseite 18.05.2019] "The jury's reasoning for Franz Alt: "The journalist has helped prepare the solar energy revolution and the ecological traffic revolution in more than 30 countries in recent decades. He continues to advise governments and corporations around the world on the switch to renewable energies. His book "Die Sonne schickt uns keine Rechnung ist ein Welt-Bestseller geworden" (The sun does not send us a bill has become a world bestseller) has made a significant contribution to solar and wind energy being the cheapest energy sources in 70 countries today. In many poor countries of the world, solar power is now "social power".
What I personally missed, although it cannot be ruled out that I simply overlooked this because of the enormous range of products on offer, are innovative approaches to solutions, e.g. to make PV solar parks more sustainable. If you have a look to some of the realized projects in this world, you will notice that in the name of environmentally friendly energy production, most valuable natural areas are being massively destroyed. In some places, valuable farming land, even virgin forests and valuable natural areas are sacrificed to create space for a PV solar park. From my point of view, sustainability looks totally different. Especially since innovative solutions are already available. Agro-PV should only be mentioned here. Here the solar area is still available for agricultural use. The same applies to aquaculture units and many other applications.
An presentable example for an innovative solution in this sector can be found here: http://www.solidenergie.com/archives/1097
On the whole, it should be noted that the INTERSOLAR solar trade fair has recorded massive growth, which is very pleasing. After all, it shows the uniform global will to implement the energy transition in real terms in order to be able to do without fossil fuels or nuclear energy in the future. On the other hand, the current INTERSOLAR clearly shows that many entities would rather concentrate on pure profit-oriented technologies and not on all technologies that solar energy already provides technologically. Solar thermal energy continues to be a technology that is lagging behind. A snapshot that, in my view, does not do justice to the actual potential of solar thermal energy. I hope that the real market will take this into account and will make greater use of solar thermal technologies accordingly. In addition to pure service water heating, also in the area of industrial heat supply, local/regional local heat supply and also with special projects in the area of solar-assisted seawater desalination plants, as well as solar-assisted air-conditioning supply units. A diversified field for which highly efficient solar thermal collectors are already available. 

Andreas Wöll, Dipl.Ing. (FH)            
For over 25 years in the field of renewables at home with complementary experience on international terrain in Asia, Africa and Middle East..

You will find this article be published in the summer issue of Kathai Magazine 06/2019 and will be available from June 6th at            http://books.kathai.de